Fractional calculus and q-deformed Lie algebras are closely related. Both concepts expand the scope of standard Lie algebras to describe generalized symmetries. A new class of fractional q-deformed Lie algebras is proposed, which for the first time allows a smooth transition between different Lie algebras. For the fractional harmonic oscillator, the corresponding fractional q-number is derived. It is shown, that the resulting energy spectrum is an appropriate tool to describe e.g. the ground state spectra of even-even nuclei. In addition, the equivalence of rotational and vibrational spectra for fractional q-deformed Lie algebras is shown and the $B_\alpha(E2)$ values for the fractional q-deformed symmetric rotor are calculated. A first interpretation of half integer representations of the fractional rotation group is given in terms of a description of $K=1/2^-$ band spectra of odd-even nuclei.